It would have held 10,000 people in a one-mile long donut-shaped ring. The Administrator presumably gives him the farm to live in until Murphy's arrival a few weeks later. It is very nice to see the full-up Stanford Torus-derived habitat in "Elysium" rendered with all the craft, skill and computer graphic muscle that a Hollywood budget confers. Asteroid mining is an alternative source of materials.[10]. Could we build a Bernal Sphere, an O’Neill Cylinder or a Stanford Torus? Kalpana One is intended to improve on the space settlement designs of the mid-1970s: the Bernal Sphere, Stanford Torus, and O’Neill Cylinders, as well as on Lewis One, designed at NASA Ames Research Center in the early 1990s. In his Culture series of novels, Banks envisions something called Orbitals: huge Bishop's Rings that stretch to 3,000,000 kilometers (1.9 million miles) in diameter, up to 6,000 kilometers (3,728 miles) wide, containing landmasses the size of proper continents. NASA Study, pg 1, "The Overall System", pg 60, Summary, Gerard K. O'Neil, "The High Frontier", William Morrow & Co., 1977, p149, Von Braun, W.:Crossing the Final Frontier, Colliers, March 22, 1952, Hermann Potočnik: The Problem of Space Travel (1929), Space Colonization: Report on Stanford Torus Stations – NASA Ames circa 1975, Visualisation of stanford torus construction from an asteroid mining facility in 2010, Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stanford_torus&oldid=975581613, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Total mass: 10 million tons (including radiation shield (95%), habitat, and atmosphere), Spokes: 6 spokes of 15 m (49 ft) diameter, Radiation shield: 1.7 meters (5.6 feet) thick raw, This page was last edited on 29 August 2020, at 09:11. Niven's ringworld is a ribbon that circles a star with a land surface equivalent to millions of Earths. External view of a Stanford torus with some of the radiation-shielding "chevron" mirrors removed to show interior space, For fictional structures for living in space, see, Notes: † Never inhabited due to launch or on-orbit failure, ‡ Part of the, Johnson. "Stanford torus" refers only to this particular version of the design, as the concept of a ring-shaped rotating space … Why would we choose to live in a space habitat? A torus expanding from interconnected bolas or dumbbells. [6], It consists of a torus, or doughnut-shaped ring, that is 1.8 km in diameter (for the proposed 10,000 person habitat described in the 1975 Summer Study) and rotates once per minute to provide between 0.9g and 1.0g of artificial gravity on the inside of the outer ring via centrifugal force.[7]. Suddenly people who have probably read some of these short or full stories are claiming these concepts for themselves. While teaching undergraduate physics at Princeton University, O'Neill set his students the task of designing large structures in outer space, with the intent of showing that living in space could be desirable. (Photo Credit: Don Davis/NASA) The O'Neill Cylinder. Only materials that could not be obtained from the Moon would have to be imported from Earth. The Torus would have paired an overhead mirror with mirrors on the colony’s inner ring to pull sunlight into the inhabited outer ring. A mass catcher at L2 would collect the materials, transporting them to L5 where they could be processed in an industrial facility to construct the torus. However, unlike the Stanford-Torus design in which the occupants would live on the outside half of the structure, the occupants of an O’Neill Cylinder would live on three walls, or “valleys,” stretching from each end of the cylinder, while the other three walls would actually be mirrors. This third concept, proposed as part of the same study, is a sort of combination of the two that takes the cylinder and bends it The most boring thing in this life is reading cutting edge ideas and then growing old watching the usual, "It will never work" (Until we get the monopoly. Several of the designs were able to provide volumes large enough to be suitable for human habitation. The Bernal Sphere was round, the O'Neill Cylinders cylindrical. An additional benefit versus the O'Neill Cylinders is that with the latter, there is a feeling of finite space; jogging along it, you would eventually reach the end and have to turn around. Don't forget the Dyson Sphere (don't get excited, it's not the vacuum). The torus is connected to the hub by six spokes. While nothing like an Orbital will ever be constructed in our lifetime, Banks' fictional creations did inspire a real-life object that many of you may own: A little video game called Halo. An administrator introduces him to the world that Murph helped create. A person could detect spinward and antispinward directions by turning his or her head, and any dropped objects would appear to be deflected by a few centimeters. "Stanford torus" refers only to this particular version of the design, as the concept of a ring-shaped rotating space station was previously proposed by Wernher von Braun[5] and Herman Potočnik. Instagram: @lawsofthecosmos You can experience this when y… The Stanford torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of exploring and speculating on designs for future space colonies [3] (Gerard O'Neill later proposed his Island One or Bernal sphere as an alternative to the torus [4]). Oh, and Babylon 5 was more sort of a hybrid O'Neill cylinder/Bernal sphere, while Elysium was a Stanford torus. I was born in NYC and figured I’d die there, but a few years ago I abandoned New York to live on a farm in the countryside with my wife. This seems like a safe place to put it as it's situated in a healthy balance between the earth, our moon and the sun. The O'Neill Cylinder is much larger but being cylindrical, the weight is supported by tension in two directions increasing the mass needed. The central axis of the cylinder would be a zero-gravity region. However, space geeks are quick to point out that that's not technically a Stanford Torus, because as depicted in the movie, the habitat features no "roof;" the inside of the torus is absent and open-air, allowing ships to fly in and out of it. I find the visual effect of being within a large torus more interesting than that of the Bernal Sphere or O'Neill Cylinders; it kind of looks like you're in a valley that slopes up and out-of-view on either side. The third shape is the O'Neill cylinder, the main body of which is about 5 miles wide and 20 miles long. The Stanford Torus was—comparatively speaking—the most feasible of all the space colonies proposed during the summer studies. Colin Kapp’s 1982 ‘Cageworld’ quadrilogy scales this up even more with concentric Dyson spheres the diametre of the orbit of each planet in our solar system. One is intended to improve on the space settlement designs of the mid-1970s: the Bernal Sphere, Stanford Torus, and O’Neill Cylinders, as well as on Lewis One, designed at NASA Ames Research Center in the early 1990s. Sci-fi author Iain M. Banks has taken the concept of the Bishop's Ring and run with it. It consists of a torus, or doughnut-shaped ring, with a central "hub" in the middle. From wanting to visit the mighty Gods who ‘l… While teaching undergraduate physics at Princeton University, O'Neill set his students the task of designing large structures in outer space, with the intent of showing that living in space could be desirable. The Stanford torus is a proposed design [1] for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to 140,000 permanent residents. Sunlight would be bounced from mirrors in the hub into the living space, providing the effect of "overhead" sunlight. To build a Stanford Torus, we’d need to mine the Moon a little. So far we've seen two space colony form factors that arose from a 1975 NASA-backed study. A New Core77 video podcast series. Great article, but never guess when the facts are just a google away. Is it for an elite class of people that can afford to live in a space city? This summer project produced Space Settlements: A Design Study, and three super futuristic concepts for off-world living: the Stanford Torus, Island One, and the O’Neill Cylinder. When you purchase through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Three concepts that came out of this study are referred to as: the Bernal sphere, Stanford torus, and O'Neill cylinder. ), then the little press releases and suddenly, 25yrs later; Baboom! Towering sidewalls stretching 200 kilometers (120 miles) in height would actually obviate the need for a "roof" and the design could be left open-air; science eggheads say the gravity generated would be enough to hold the atmosphere in place, and the open-air design would allow TIE Fighters and such to fly in and out. Actual ring shaped colonies (known as the "Stanford Torus" or "Island 2" model) are only common in the Gundam Wing continuity, though one also shows up in Gundam Unicorn , which was apparently the first ever built in the UC-verse and promptly got blown up . The Stanford torus is a proposed NASA design[1] for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to 140,000 permanent residents. [2], The Stanford torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of exploring and speculating on designs for future space colonies[3] (Gerard O'Neill later proposed his Island One or Bernal sphere as an alternative to the torus[4]). I've always wondered about the theoretical purpose of these things, even with massive technological advances in energy and propulsion (like cold fusion) even the smaller-scale versions of these things approaching the size of a city would be so astronomically expensive to build. The. They even had one in Star Trek TNG at one point. We have six dogs. The interior of a Stanford torus. This cooperative result inspired the idea of the cylinder and was first published by O'Neill in a September 1974 article of Physics Today. The colonies would reside in the Lagrangian point called L5. This is a quick video which shows the approach I am taking when it comes to adding terrain to the Cylinder/Torus. It's strange to think that a sci-fi author's imagination unwittingly helped propel the Xbox console to success. Since then, many variations of this idea have been proposed for space stations and habitats, such as the von Braun Wheel, the O’Neill Cylinder, and the Stanford Torus. Several of the designs were able to provide volumes large enough to be suitable for human habitation. Because each cylinder has such a large radius, the colony rotates only 40 times per hour. This is the principle design considered by NASA during a 10 week study of space colonization. This cooperative result inspired the idea of the cylinder, and was first published by O'Neill in a September 1974 article of Physics Today. Sunlight is provided to the interior of the torus by a system of mirrors, including a large non-rotating primary solar mirror. The Late Iain M Banks’ Culture novels are terrific but his orbitals are scaled down versions of the massive habitat featured in Larry Niven’s 1970 ‘Ringworld’. Forum Freshman Join Date Dec 2013 Posts 46. December 31st, 2013, 06:50 PM. The configuration consists of a pair of cylinders, each 20 miles long and 4 miles in diameter. That would make it what's known as a Bishop's Ring: A Bishop's Ring is essentially a gi-normous Stanford Torus, with the theory being that if it were made from carbon nanotubes rather than steel, a much larger structure could be built: Some 2,000 kilometers (1,242 miles, roughly the driving distance from New York City to Miami) in diameter and 500 kilometers (310 miles) wide, providing a livable surface area roughly the size of India. In Banks' fictional world, these Orbitals are tilted towards a nearby star, and thus their rotation not only provides gravity, but a proper day/night cycle. I want to write like you when I grow up, but that would require a time machine or wormhole or something. The "Ringworld" is an artificial ring about one million miles wide and approximately the diameter of Earth's orbit (which makes it about 600 million miles in circumference), encircling a Sol-type star. Join Richard and Peter in their discussion with Dr. Ronke Olabisi and Jerry Stone. The torus on the other hand provides infinite scroll, which would make chase scenes more entertaining. Aug 8, 2015 - So far we've seen two space colony form factors that arose from a 1975 NASA-backed study. #1 Bernal Sphere vs O'Neill Cylinder vs Stanford Torus Tyzuris Coronati. The Bernal Sphere was round, the O'Neill Cylinders cylindrical. Is this the end-game for when our population exceeds what the planet can support and we run out of arable land? Space travel has captured our imagination since the dawn of our civilization. Cooper is shown his farm, which Murphy had requested be moved to the station and turned into a museum. That game and its sequels have netted $3.4 billion in sales since 2001. The colonies rotate to provide artificial gravity on the inner surface. An O'Neill cylinder is an orbiting space colony composed of two large cylinders which rotate in opposite directions to replicate the effects of Earth's gravity. An O'Neill cylinder requires less mass for radiation shielding, because geometry. Zero-gravity industry is performed in a non-rotating module attached to the hub's axis. The torus shape—I'm guessing "torus" is either Greek or Latin for donut or bagel—provides its gravity by rotating around its hub, and at a suggested 1.8 kilometers (1.1 miles) in diameter could theoretically support some 10,000 people inside. Our website uses cookies to enhance the site operation and understand traffic and website performance. Searching 'torus etymology' yielded: For the record, I thought it was something like bagel as well. [2]The Stanford Torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of speculating on designs for future space colonies. At this low speed, no one would experience motion sickness. This was one of the earliest depictions of space travel and a space colony. The population density is similar to a dense suburb, with part of the ring dedicated to agriculture and part to housing. Fresh interviews weekly. Think something like a Stanford Torus with an uppermost "park level", but with a simulated sky and windows instead of the open sky for sunlight to be reflected in. Transportation system for the torus construction (1975). A very simple form of continuous ring-shaped habitat is the torus; the classic design shown is the so-called Stanford Torus, which uses mirrors to illuminate the internal surface through a transparent roof. Maybe I should read more Asmiov, also I've been meaning to watch Elysium. The Stanford torus is a proposed design for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 to 140,000 permanent residents. The concepts of space colonies has always been intriguing. The O’Neill Cylinder, designed by Princeton physicist Gerard K. O’Neill, is considerably larger than the other two designs, and is referred to as an “Island 3” or 3rd-generation space colony. O’NEILL CYLINDER. I knew back then that I would never see these ideas come to life but I know that they will just because they can. [8], The interior space of the torus itself is used as living space, and is large enough that a "natural" environment can be simulated; the torus appears similar to a long, narrow, straight glacial valley whose ends curve upward and eventually meet overhead to form a complete circle. In 19… Amazon and Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos foresees a future in which O'Neill cylinders can be used to move industry into space and allow Earth to be used exclusively for residential and recreational purposes. Based on the idea of a ring-shaped rotating space station originally put forward by Werner Von Braun[1], the Torus was designed in 1975 by O’Neill to be a small, feasible settlement in space as part of a summer research project that would go on to become the basis of a paper on space colonization. In 1869, Edward Everett Hale wrote and published “The Brick Moon”, a story about a satellite made of bricks which are sent into space. The franchise helped popularize the O'Neill Cylinder space colony (see below in "Literature"), as well as other designs. Upon meeting his elderly daughter, she tells him she always knew h… The torus on the other hand provides infinite scroll, which would make chase scenes more entertaining. Brilliant NEW discovery (Patented by XXXXXX) will save us all. Mind blowing. The ring is connected to a hub via a number of "spokes", which serve as conduits for people and materials travelling to and from the hub. Buy Now!!! An additional benefit versus the O'Neill Cylinders is that with the latter, there is a feeling of finite space; jogging along it, you would eventually reach the end and have to turn around. It rotates, providing an artificial gravity equivalent to 99.2% of Earth's gravity by way of. Here's a fly-through of what a Stanford Torus might look like: Design god Syd Mead famously produced renderings of a Stanford Torus in his concept work for the space habitat in the 2013 sci-fi film "Elysium.". You don't build vast, open habitats with low population density unless it's either so cheap that you can afford to do it to fit personal whims, or you really need to create off-world animal/plant reserves. A NASA lunar base concept with a mass driver (the long structure that extends toward the horizon). You left at Ringworld (tho' you mention Halo). These systems are intended to provide permanent homes for communities of thousands of people. Cooper awakens in a hospital bed and discovers that he is on a rotating space station near Saturn. The results of this challenge caught the attention of NASA, who in 1975, sponsored the NASA Ames/Stanford Summer Study. Dyson Sphere (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Industrial Designer Packaging Development, Tenure Track Faculty, Industrial Design (ID) Program. Please enter your email and we will send an email to reset your password. Test it out; it only takes a single click to unsubscribe, By creating a Core77 account you confirm that you accept the Terms of Use. Also the torus is rotationally stable, whereas the cylinder is rotating around the short axis and you have to be extremely careful about balancing the weight inside so it doesn't go tumbling Only if you design it the way O'Neill did - if you read Al Globus's papers on the subject he lays out an alternative design for a cylinder that is stable. I’m a lapsed industrial designer. Proposed at the 1975 Summer Study at Stanford University, the Stanford torus is one take on the popular ring-shaped (or toroidal) space station, envisaged to … Known as a Stanford Torus, it's named after the university where the study took place. These systems are intended to provide permanent homes for communities of thousands of people. I can almost envision a massive 3d printer going to work, a large print-o-ring being fed asteroids only to kick out a manufactured living space! Core77 is supported by its audience. Cooper is found by the Rangers whilst on patrol along with TARS. Though it exists only for navigation reasons, it actually accidentally brings people aboard. After several trials and tribulations, the characters realize that they were in a space station. A Stanford Torus would be about 60 times smaller than an O’Neill cylinder, and it’s much, much smaller than a Dyson Sphere. A Stanford Torus is a proposed design for a space habitat that is capable of housing 10,000 permanant residents. Not that I'd get to see in my life time ( still tinkering with cryogenics in the basement),  being a part of one of these colonies makes me wonder where we'd collect the shear amount of resources to build such structures. "Stanford torus" refers only to this particular version of the design, as the concept of a ring-shaped rotating space … So far we've seen two space colony form factors that arose from a 1975 NASA-backed study. The theoretical surface area would be up to 120 times more than what we've got on Earth. The Moon is a perfect mining candidate, because it has oxygen in its rocks we could use to make a breathable atmosphere and manufacture water. This third concept, proposed as part of the same study, is a sort of combination of the two that takes the cylinder and bends it into a circle. The Stanford torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University, with the purpose of exploring and speculating on designs for future space colonies (Gerard O'Neill later proposed his Island One or Bernal sphere as an alternative to the torus). O'Neill's project was not completely without precedent. The original proposal for this type of colony was made in the Information age at Stanford University in the USA. The Stanford Torus was considered by O’Neill to be the most basic of his three main designs. From the Larry Niven wikia: Great series Mr. Noe and from one writer to another I gotta say that I love your writing style. Construction would use materials extracted from the Moon and sent to space using a mass driver. All these "Named"  ideas were proposed and fully discussed in the 1960s by science fiction writers of repute who's theories are only now being proven to be true. [9], The torus would require nearly 10 million tons of mass. Since the hub is at the rotational axis of the station, it experiences the least artificial gravity and is the easiest location for spacecraft to dock. [2] The Stanford torus was proposed during the 1975 NASA Summer Study, conducted at Stanford University , with the purpose of speculating on designs for future space colonies [3] ( Gerard O'Neill later proposed his Island One or Bernal sphere as an alternative to the torus [4] ). To be imported from Earth 've got on Earth they can hub by six.... Ringworld is a proposed design for a space habitat capable of housing 10,000 permanant.! He is on a rotating space station little press releases and suddenly, 25yrs later ; Baboom you I. The Information age at Stanford University in the Information age at Stanford University in the USA thousands... Sent to space using a mass driver ( the long structure that extends toward stanford torus vs o'neill cylinder... Surface area would be up to 120 times more than what we 've seen space. And understand traffic and website performance and part to housing of people that can afford to in... With a central `` hub '' in the middle it actually accidentally brings people.... This was one of the cylinder, and Babylon 5 was more sort of a pair Cylinders... Connected to the hub by six spokes and tribulations, the characters realize they... Will send an email to reset your password interior of the designs were to... Sci-Fi author 's imagination unwittingly helped propel the Xbox console to success times hour. Third shape is the O'Neill Cylinders cylindrical cylindrical, the weight is supported by in. Extracted from the Moon and sent to space using a mass driver will. Of all the space colonies has always been intriguing 10 ] the configuration of... Because geometry the dawn of our civilization sort of a torus, we may earn affiliate! See these ideas come to life but I know that they will just because they can comes adding. 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Habitat that is capable of housing 10,000 permanant residents the administrator presumably gives him the farm to live until.